News & Publications

The latest clinical research published using data from the PC4 registry


Peritoneal Catheters in Neonates Undergoing Complex Cardiac Surgery: A Multi-Centre Descriptive Study, Kwiatkowski, DM, Cardiol Young. 2024 Feb;34(2):272-281. doi: 10.1017/S104795112300135X. Epub 2023 Jun 20.PMID: 37337694.

Neonatal Chylothorax and Early Fluid Overload After Cardiac Surgery: Retrospective Analysis of the Neonatal and Pediatric Heart and Renal Outcomes Network Registry (2015-2018), Katie L. Brandewie, Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2024 Mar 1:25(3): 231-240. Doi: 10.1097/PCC.0000000000003415. Epub 2023 Dec 13. PMID: 38088768

Epidemiology of Postoperative Junctional Ectopic Tachycardia in Infants Undergoing Cardiac Surgery, Michael E. Kim, Ann Thorac Surg. 2024 March 12:S0003-4975(24)00185-1.doi:10.1016/j.athoracsur.2024.03.002. PMID: 38484909

An Evaluation of the Outcomes Associated with Peritoneal Catheter Use in Neonates Undergoing Cardiac Surgery: A Multicenter Study, David M. Kwiatkowski, MD, MS, J thorac Cardiovasc Surg Open. Available online 25 March 2024.

Cardiac Surgery-Associated Acute Kidney Injury in Neonates Undergoing the Norwood Operation: Retrospective Analysis of the Multicenter Neonatal and Pediatric Heart and Renal Outcomes Network Dataset, 2015-2018. Rebecca A Bertrandt, Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2024 Mar 14. Doi: 10.1097/PCC.0000000000003498. PMID: 38483198 DOI: 10.1097/PCC. 0000000000003498

Diuretic Responsiveness after Neonatal Cardiac Surgery: A report from the NEPRHON Collaborative, Blinder, Joshua J., Accepted by Pediatr Nephrol 2024 Apr 6.


Methods to Enhance Casual Inference for Assessing Impact of Clinical Informatics Platform Implementation, Gaies, Michael, Circulation: Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes. 2 Feb 2023;16(2). Doi:10.1161/CIRCOUTCOMES.122.009277.

Age at Surgery and Outcomes Following Neonatal Cardiac Surgery: An Analysis from the Pediatric Cardiac Critical Care Consortium, Smith, Andrew H., J thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2023 Apr;165(4):1528-1538.e7.doi:10.1016/jtcvs.2022.05.029. Epub 2022 Jun 2. PMID: 35760618

Team Communication and Expectations Following Pediatric Cardiac Surgery: A Multi-Disciplinary Survey, Bushnell, Julie, Pediatric Cardiology. 2023 Apr;44(4):908-914. doi: 10.1007/s00246-022-03059-9. Epub 2022 Nov 27.PMD: 36436004.

Assessment of Fluid Balance after Neonatal Cardiac Surgery: a description of intake/output vs. weight-based Methods, Neumayr, Tara M., Pediatr Nephrol. 2023 Apr;38(4):1355-1364. doi: 10.1007/s00467-022-05697-w. Epub 2022 Sept 6. PMID: 36066771.

Contemporary Care and Outcomes of Critically-ill Children with Clinically Diagnosed Myocarditis, Dave Peng, J Card Fail. 2023 May 6:S1071-9164(23)00152-5. DOI: 10.1016/j.cardfail.2023.04.010. PMID: 37150502.

Unplanned Extubation During Pediatric Cardiac Intensive Care: U.S. Multicenter Registry Study of Prevalence and Outcomes, Perry, Tanya DO, Pediatric Critical Care Medicine. 2023 Apr 18. Doi: 10.1097/PCC.0000000000003235. PMID: 37070818.

Assessing enrollment of eligible infants in the national pediatric cardiology quality improvement collaborative (NPC-QIC) through linkage to the pediatric cardiac critical care consortium (PC4) registry, Katherine E. Bates, Cardiol Young. 2023 Jul12:1-7. DOI: 10.1017/S1047951123001671. PMID: 37434511.

Development of an Equity, Diversity, and Inclusion Committee for a collaborative quality improvement network: Pediatric Cardiac Critical Care Consortium (PC4) Equity, Diversity, and Inclusion (EDI) Committee: white paper 2023, Yuen Lie Tjoeng, Cardiology in the Young. 14 August 2023. DOI: 10.1017/S1047951123002950.

Early Postoperative Weight-based Fluid Overload is Associated with Worse Outcomes after Neonatal Cardiac Surgery: A Report from the Multicenter NEPHRON Collaborative, Katie L. Brandewie,, Ped Nephrology. 2023 Sep;38(9):3129-3137. DOI: 10.1007/s00467-023-05929-7. PMID: 36973562.

Risk Factors for Extubation Failure after Pediatric Cardiac Surgery and Impact on Outcomes: A Multicenter Analysis, Jonathan Byrnes, Crit Care Explor. 2023 Oct;5(10):e0966. DOI: 10:1097/CCE.0000000000000966. PMID: 37753236.

Racial and Ethnic Variation in ECMO Utilization and Outcomes in Pediatric Cardiac ICU Patients, Marissa A. Brunetti,, JACC Advances. 2023 November; 2(9):1006. DOI: 10.106/j.jacadv.2023.100634.

Persistent acute kidney injury and fluid accumulation with outcomes after the Norwood procedure: report from NEPHRON, Denise C. Hasson,, Pediatric Nephrology. E published December 6th, 2023. 

Neonatal Chylothorax and Early Fluid Overload After Cardiac Surgery: Retrospective Analysis of the Neonatal and Pediatric Heart and Renal Outcomes Network Registry, Brandewie K, Alten J, Winder M, Mah K, Holmes K, Reichle G, Smith A, Zang H, Bailly D. (2015-2018). Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2023 Dec 13. doi: 10.1097/PCC.0000000000003415. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 38088768.


Critical Care Unit Organizational and Personnel Factors Impact Cardiac Arrest Prevention and Rescue in the Pediatric Cardiac Population, Lasa, Javier J., Pediatr Crit Care Med.2022 Apr 1;23(4):255-267. doi: 10.1097/PCC.0000000000002892. Epub 2022 Jan 12. PMID: 35020714

Risk Factors for Perioperative Morbidity in Adults Undergoing Cardiac Surgery at Children’s Hospitals, Jain, Parag N.,, Ann Thorac Surg. 2022 Jun;113(6):2062-2070. Doi:10.1016/jathoracsur.2021.04.002. Epub 2021 Apr 20. PMID: 33864757.

Norwood Operation: Immediate vs Delayed Sternal Closure, Asfari, Ahmed, Ann Thorac Surg. 2023 Mar;115(3):649-654. doi: 10.1016/j.athoracsur.2022.06.046. Epub 2022 Jul 19. PMID: 35863395.

Preventing Cardiac Arrest in the Pediatric Cardiac Intensive Care Unit Through Multicenter Collaboration, Alten, Jeffrey, JAMA Pediatr. 2022 Oct 1;176(10):1027-1036. doi: 10.1001/jamapediatrics.2022.2238. PMID: 35788631 PMCID: PMC9257678 (available on 2023-07-05)

Measuring Critical Care Unit Performance Using a Postoperative Mechanical Ventilation Quality Metric, Werho, David. K., The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Nov 2022. Doi 10/1016/jathoracsur.2022.11.026

Fetal Growth and Gestational Age Improve Outcome Predictions in Neonatal Heart Surgery, Steurer, Martina A.,, J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2022 Dec; 164(6):2002-2012.e1. doi: 10.1016/j.jtcvs.2022.05.022. Epub 2022 May 28. PMID: 35750509.

Fluid Accumulation After Neonatal Congenital Cardiac Operation: Clinical Implications and Outcomes, Bailly, David K. Ann Thorac Surg. 2022 Dec;114(6):2288-2294. doi: 10.106/j.athoracsur.2021.12.078. Epub 2022 Mar 1. PMID: 35245511 PMCID: PMC9433462 (available on 2023-12-01).


Mortality from Pulmonary Hypertension in the Pediatric Cardiac Intensive Care Unit, Morell, E, Gaies, M, Fineman, JR, Am J Respir Crit Care Medicine, 2021 Aug 15;204(4):454-461. DOI:10.1164/rccm.202011-4183OC PMID:33798036

Epidemiology of Acute Kidney Injury after Neonatal Cardiac Surgery: A report from the multicenter Neonatal and Pediatric Heart and Renal Outcomes Network, Alten, Jeffrey A., Critical Care Medicine: Oct 2021-Vol 49-Issue 10-p e941-e951. doi: 10.1097/CCM.0000000000005165

Epidemiology of Neonatal Acute Kidney Injury after Cardiac Surgery without Cardiopulmonary Bypass, Sasaki, Jun, Annuals of Thoracic Surgery: Oct 2021.

Assessing Data Accuracy in a Large Multi-institutional Quality Improvement Registry: An Update from the Pediatric Cardiac Critical Care Consortium (PC4), Schuette, Jennifer, Cardiol Young: 2022 Nov;32(11):1742-1747.doi 10.1017/S1047951121004984. Epub 2021 Dec 28. PMID: 34961570.


Predicting and Surviving Prolonged Critical Illness After Congenital Heart Surgery, DeWitt AG, Rossano JW, Bailly DK, et al. Crit Care Med. 2020;48(7): e557e564. DOI:10.1097/CCM.0000000000004354 PMID: 32574468PMCID: PMC7316132

Central Venous Catheter Utilization and Complications in the Pediatric Cardiac ICU: A Report From the Pediatric Cardiac Critical Care Consortium (PC4), DiPietro LM, Gaies M, Banerjee M, et al.  Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2020;21(8):729-737. DOI: 10.1097/PCC.0000000000002306 PMID: 32453921

Intensive Care Unit and Acute Care Unit Length of Stay After Congenital Heart Surgery, Hart SA, Tanel RE, Kipps AK, et al. Ann Thorac Surg. 2020. DOI: 10.1016/j.athoracsur.2020.01.033 PMID: 32114048

Epidemiology and Outcomes of Acute Decompensated Heart Failure in Children, Lasa JJ, Gaies M, Bush L, et al. Circ Heart Fail. 2020;13(4):e006101. DOI: 10.1161/CIRCHEARTFAILURE.119.006101 PMID: 32301336 PMCID: PMC7169981 

Influence of Early Extubation Location on Outcomes Following Pediatric Cardiac Surgery, Rooney SR, Mastropietro CW, Benneyworth B, et al. Pediatr Crit Care. Med. 2020. DOI: 10.1097/PCC.0000000000002452 PMID: 32639473

Relationship Between Gestational Age and Outcomes After Congenital Heart Surgery, Savorgnan F, Annuals of Thoracic Surgery, 2020.


Variation in Adjusted Mortality for Medical Admissions to Pediatric Cardiac ICUs, Gaies, MG., Pediatr Crit Care Med 2019 20(2):143-148.

The Quest for Precision Medicine: Unmeasured Patient Factors and Mortality after Congenital Heart Surgery, Pasquali SK., Ann Thorac Surg. 2019.

Extubation Failure Rates after Pediatric Cardiac Surgery Vary Across Hospitals, Rooney, SR., et. al. Pediatric Critical Care Medicine 2019 Feb 25. DOI: 10.1097/PCC.0000000000001877  PMID:30807544.

A Novel Model Demonstrates Variation in Risk-Adjusted Mortality Across Pediatric Cardiac ICUs After Surgery, Tabbutt S, Pediatr Crit Care Med 2019;20(2):136-142.

Neonatal and Paediatric Heart and Renal Outcomes Network: Design of a Multi-centre Retrospective Cohort Study. Alten, J. Cardiology in the Young. 2019.

Atrioventricular Block following Congenital Heart Surgery: Analysis from the Pediatric Cardiac Critical Care Consortium, Romer, A.,, The Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery 2018. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2019 Mar;157(3):1168-1177.e2. doi: 10.1016/j.jtcvs.2018.09.142. Epub 2018 Nov 24.

Sustainability of infant cardiac surgery early extubation practices after implementation and study, Gaies, M.,
Ann Thorac Surg 2018 107(5): 1427-1433. Epub 2018 Oct 31.

Improvement in Pediatric Cardiac Surgical Outcomes Through Interhospital Collaboration. Gaies, M., et al.  J Am Coll Cardiol 2019 Dec 3:74(22):2786-2795. Doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2019.09.046.


Collective quality improvement in the paediatric cardiology acute care unit: establishment of the Pediatric Acute Care Cardiology Collaborative (PAC3), Kipps, A., Cardiology in the Young 2018 June.

The Epidemiology of Health-Care Associated Infections in Pediatric Cardiac Intensive Care Units. Alten JA et al. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2018.

Characteristics, Risk Factors, and Outcomes of Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation Use in Pediatric Cardiac ICUs: A Report From the Pediatric Cardiac Critical Care Consortium Registry. Brunetti MA et al. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2018.

Variation in Case-Mix Adjusted Unplanned Pediatric Cardiac ICU Readmission Rates. Smith AH et al. Crit Care Med. 2018.

Cardiac Networks United: an integrated paediatric and congenital cardiovascular research and improvement network, Gaies M, Anderson J, Kipps A, et al. Cardiol Young. 2018;29(2):111-118.


Clinical epidemiology and centre variation in chylothorax rates after cardiac surgery in children: a report from the Pediatric Cardiac Critical Care Consortium. Buckley JR, Graham EM et al. Cardiol Young. 2017.

Duration of Postoperative Mechanical Ventilation as a Quality Metric for Pediatric Cardiac Surgical Programs. Gaies M et al. Ann Thorac Surg 2017 Oct 4; S0003-4975(17) 30867-6.  PMID: 28987397

Epidemiology and Outcomes of Cardiac Arrest in Pediatric Cardiac ICUs. Alten JA et al.Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2017.

Epidemiology of Noninvasive Ventilation in Pediatric Cardiac ICUs. Romans RA et al.Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2017.

Variation in extubation failure rates after neonatal congenital heart surgery across Pediatric Cardiac Critical Care Consortium hospitals. Benneyworth B, Mastropietro CW et al.J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2017.


Data integrity of the Pediatric Cardiac Critical Care Consortium (PC4) clinical registry. Gaies M et al. Cardiol Young 2016 Aug; 26(6); 1090-1096.   PMID: 26358157


Clinical Epidemiology of Extubation Failure in the Pediatric Cardiac ICU: A Report From the Pediatric Cardiac Critical Care Consortium. Gaies M, Pasquali SK et al. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2015.

Collaborative quality improvement in the cardiac intensive care unit: development of the Paediatric Cardiac Critical Care Consortium (PC4). Gaies M et al. Cardiol Young. 2015.

Perioperative feeding management of neonates with CHD: analysis of the Pediatric Cardiac Critical Care Consortium (PC4) registry. Alten JA, Rhodes LA et al. Cardiol Young. 2015.


Vasoactive-inotropic score is associated with outcome after infant cardiac surgery: an analysis from the Pediatric Cardiac Critical Care Consortium and Virtual PICU System Registries. Gaies M et al. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2014.