PC⁴ Press/Media Kit


About Us
Management Bios
Prior Coverage
Featured On
Digital Artwork
Contact Information


The Pediatric Cardiac Critical Care Consortium (PC⁴) aims to improve the quality of care to patients with critical pediatric and congenital cardiovascular disease in North America and abroad. Formed in 2009 with National Institutes of Health funding, PC⁴ is a unique collaborative of leaders in pediatric cardiac critical care, cardiac surgery, and cardiology representing a diverse group of over 60 children’s hospitals across the globe caring for these vulnerable patients. The core pillars of collaborative quality improvement serve as the foundation for PC⁴. Using these pillars, we have been able to improve a variety of outcomes in these children, including the prevention of complications, such as cardiac arrest, and saving hundreds of children’s lives in our member centers.


Dr. Sarah Tabbutt is the Executive Director of PC⁴. She is a Professor of Pediatrics and a pediatric cardiac intensivist at UCSF Benioff Children’s Hospital. Having trained in cardiology and critical care medicine at Boston Childrens Hospital followed by 10 years at the Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia with 6 as director of the cardiac intensive care unit, she has spent the last 13 years at UCSF with 6 as director of the cardiac intensive care unit. Dr. Tabbutt has a long history of academic and clinical interest in newborns with single ventricle heart disease, the most severe form of congenital heart disease. She has led multiple research trials and clinical programs devoted to improving care in this patient population and has published nearly 100 research papers about her work. Dr. Tabbutt lives in San Francisco with her husband who is also a pediatric cardiologist and her two daughters.

Dr. Michael Gaies is the founder of PC⁴ and was the first Executive Director of the organization from 2009 to 2019. He is an Associate Professor of Pediatrics and Communicable Diseases at the University of Michigan. He earned his medical degree and Master of Public Health from Harvard Medical School before his pediatric training at Boston Children’s Hospital. He then completed his pediatric cardiology and cardiac critical care training at C.S. Mott Children’s Hospital and has continued as faculty at Michigan since then. His strong research interests in defining and understanding variation in clinical outcomes and health-care resource utilization between cardiac surgery centers and identifying the cardiac intensive care structure and process variables that drive variation were the impetus for the creation of this organization. Dr. Gaies collaborates with researchers who direct regional and national quality improvement collaboratives in pediatric and congenital cardiac care and across other specialties. He also is the co-founder and co-Director of Cardiac Networks United. He lives in Ann Arbor, MI with his wife and two daughters.


Speeding Up Recovery for Children Undergoing Heart Surgery, Nov 18, 2019; Michigan Health News:

Reducing Cardiac Arrests Among Pediatric Heart Patients, Nov 18, 2019; Michigan Health News:

Critical Pediatric Heart Deaths Drop by 24% at Hospitals With Cardiac ICUs, Nov 25, 2019; Michigan Health News:

Breaking Down Barriers in the Fight Against Congenital Heart Disease, Sep 13, 2019;

Improving ECMO Strategies, Outcomes for Children with Critical Cardiac Disease, Mar 19, 2017;


A handful of our most recent groundbreaking publications include:

Gaies M, Pasquali SK, Banerjee M, et al. Improvement in Pediatric Cardiac Surgical Outcomes Through Interhospital Collaboration. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2019 Dec 3;74(22):2786-2795. doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2019.09.046. PMID: 31779793; PMCID: PMC6981276. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31779793/

DeWitt AG, Rossano JW, Bailly, DK, et al. Predicting and Surviving Prolonged Critical Illness After Congenital Heart Surgery, Critical Care Medicine: July 2020 – Volume 48 – Issue 7 – p e557-e564 doi: 10.1097/CCM.0000000000004354. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32574468/

Hart SA, Tanel RE, Kipps AK, et al. Intensive Care Unit and Acute Care Unit Length of Stay After Congenital Heart Surgery. Ann Thorac Surg. 2020 Oct;110(4):1396-1403. doi: 10.1016/j.athoracsur.2020.01.033. Epub 2020 Feb 28. PMID: 32114048. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32114048/

Lasa JJ, Gaies M, Bush L, et al. Epidemiology and Outcomes of Acute Decompensated Heart Failure in Children. Circ Heart Fail. 2020 Apr;13(4):e006101. doi: 10.1161/ CIRCHEARTFAILURE.119.006101. Epub 2020 Apr 17. PMID: 32301336; PMCID: PMC7169981. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32301336/

A full list of our publications can be found here: https://pc4quality.org/news-publications/


The PC⁴ Story – Past, Present, Future

Interhospital Collaboration Improves Congenital Heart Surgical Outcomes

Our work has also been presented at nearly every national conference related to cardiology,
cardiac surgery, and critical care medicine over the last 6 years.


PC⁴: Saving Lives in Cardiac Critical Care

Congenital Heart Disease Treatment: Breaking Down Barriers to Improve Care


2023 Toronto Conference Posters

Primary Author/Presenter Title Center Download
Maria Balbin and Mekdela Tirfe Improving Data Entry for PC4 and PAC3 in CardioAccess by Utilizing a Custom Standardized Data Flowsheet in Cerner Children’s National Medical Center https://pc4-posters.s3.us-west-2.amazonaws.com/Mekdela+Tirfe+ImprovingDataEntry_TorontoFINAL.pdf
Jeanette Belan and Fatemat Hassan Engaging Providers in Discharge Caregiver Education to Decrease Medication Errors – A Quality Improvement Projects in the Children’s Heart Institute Children’s Memorial Hermann Hospital, The University of Texas Helth Sciences Center at Houston https://pc4-posters.s3.us-west-2.amazonaws.com/Jeanette+Belan+Poster-medication+teaching.zip
Tara Cosgrove and Julie Aldrich PROMISE: PRO-active Mitigiation to decrease Serious Adverse Events Nationwide Childen’s Hospital https://pc4-posters.s3.us-west-2.amazonaws.com/Tara+Cosgrove+Poster.pptx
Kimberly DiMaria and Jamie Penk Implementation of a Multiphase, Multi-institutional QI Initiative to Decrease Opioid and Benzodiazepine Exposure in CICU Patients Children’s Hospital Colorado, Ann and Robert H. Lurie Children’s Hospital of Chicago https://pc4-posters.s3.us-west-2.amazonaws.com/Jamie+Penk+PC4RPPPoster(1).pptx
Chelsea Hughes, Hilary Patteson, Kimberly DiMaria and Carly Scahill 1st Five Minute Drills: Using Simulation to Improve Resuscitation Team Performance in a Pediatric Cardiac Acute Care Unit Children’s Hospital Colorado https://pc4-posters.s3.us-west-2.amazonaws.com/Chelsea+Hughes+Medical+Interpreter+Use+CPCU+PAC3.PC4.pptx
Carly Scahill Internal Automated PC4 Data Abstraction Children’s Hospital Colorado https://pc4-posters.s3.us-west-2.amazonaws.com/2023_PAC3.PC4_AbstractionTool.pdf
Catherine Dimes Sustaining Improvements in CLABSI Reduction in a Pediatric Cardiac Intensive Care Unit Nationwide Childen’s Hospital https://pc4-posters.s3.us-west-2.amazonaws.com/Catt+Dimes.CLABSI+Poster+2022+final+(withKKD)-+updated+4-2023.pptx
Cassidy Golden A Quality Improvement Initiative to Reduce Surgical Site Infections In Pediatric Patients After Cardiothoracic Surgery, Cassidy Golden Emory University – Children’s Healthcare of Atlanta https://pc4-posters.s3.us-west-2.amazonaws.com/Cassidy+Golden.pdf
Elysia Harshman Implementation of a Discharge Nurse Role in the Acute Care Cardiology Unit Children’s Health https://pc4-posters.s3.us-west-2.amazonaws.com/Elysia+Harshman+Poster.pptx
Margot Hillyer Antimicrobial Stewardship and Improved Antibiotic Utilization in the Pediatric Cardiac Intensive Care Unit Emory University – Children’s Healthcare of Atlanta https://pc4-posters.s3.us-west-2.amazonaws.com/Margot+Hillyer+Poster+1.pptx
Margot Hillyer Standardize the Diagnosis and Treatment of Necrotizing Enterocolitis in Infants with Congenital Heart Disease Emory University – Children’s Healthcare of Atlanta https://pc4-posters.s3.us-west-2.amazonaws.com/Margot+Hillyer+Poster+2.pptx
Chelsea Hughes Improving Medical Interpreter Usage during Medical Rounds for Limited English Proficiency Families in a Pediatric Cardiac Acute Care Unit Children’s Hospital Colorado https://pc4-posters.s3.us-west-2.amazonaws.com/Chelsea+Hughes.pptx
Julie Kuzin NG Free: Delayed Feeding Tube Removal May Prolong Hospitalization Texas Children’s Hospital https://pc4-posters.s3.us-west-2.amazonaws.com/Julia+Kuzin+PAC3+Poster.pptx
Sarah Lagergren Implementation of a Fast-Track Post Operative Clinical Pathway for Straightforward Cardiovascular Surgery Patient Population Children’s Mercy Hospital https://pc4-posters.s3.us-west-2.amazonaws.com/Darcie+Al-Hassan+Fast+Track+PC4+Poster.pdf
Nina Nacpil Implementation of central venous catheter tubing setup to decrease the risk of femoral inserted central line-associated bloodstream infections in a pediatric cardiothoracic intensive care unit Children’s Hospital of Los Angeles https://pc4-posters.s3.us-west-2.amazonaws.com/Nina+Nacpil.+PC4+CVC+Tubing+Setup+Poster+4.20.pdf
Joyce Northrup, Anne Thomas and Rich Lion Decreasing Central Line Associated Bloodstream Infections in a Developing Pediatric Cardiac Intensive Care Unit Dell Children’s Hospital https://pc4-posters.s3.us-west-2.amazonaws.com/Joyce+Northrup.pptx
Mary Pacheco Implementation of a Staff Engagement Committee on a Pediatric Acute Care Cardiology Unit Addressing Nursing Burnout Children’s Health https://pc4-posters.s3.us-west-2.amazonaws.com/Mary+Pacheco+Poster.pptx
Trisha Patel and Anna-Claire Marrone Creation and Implementation of an Institutional Postoperative Norwood Course Correction Process Emory University – Children’s Healthcare of Atlanta https://pc4-posters.s3.us-west-2.amazonaws.com/Trisha+Patel+Poster.pptx
Loren D. Sacks Mortality Events in Patients with Heart Disease: A Novel Process for Rapid Review, Classification, and Identification and Implementation of Countermeasures Lucile Packard Children’s Hospital Stanford https://pc4-posters.s3.us-west-2.amazonaws.com/Loren+Sacks.+FARRM+PCICS+2023.pdf
Brittany Shutes Identifying and Screening for Pediatric Delirium in the Cardiac Intensive Care Unit: Provider Education Intervention Nationwide Children’s Hospital https://pc4-posters.s3.us-west-2.amazonaws.com/Brittany+Shutes+Poster.pptx
Stephanie Squires and Alaina Kipps A Quality Improvement Initiative to Improve Discharge Medication Education on a Pediatric Cardiology Unit Lucile Packard Children’s Hospital Stanford https://pc4-posters.s3.us-west-2.amazonaws.com/Alaina+Kipps.+Stephanie+Squires+-+MAP+Poster+Updated+2023+v3+4.10.23+-+edited+copy.pptx. https://pc4-posters.s3.us-west-2.amazonaws.com/Stephanie+Squires+Alaina+K.+Kipps+Poster.pptx
Kaitlin Tindel Improving Medication Safety for Pediatric Patients: Utilization of a Simplified Digoxin Order Panel Children’s Health https://pc4-posters.s3.us-west-2.amazonaws.com/Kaitlin+Tindel.PAC3+Poster+Presentation+2023_Digoxin+Order+Panel_Final+Exhalt+Version.pptx
Alaa Aljiffry Risk Factors for Adverse Events Among the Norwood Patients: A Single Center Retrospective Study Emory University – Children’s Healthcare of Atlanta https://pc4-posters.s3.us-west-2.amazonaws.com/Alaa+Aljiffry+CHOA+Poster+Proof+3.pdf
Suzanne Hilt Early Enteral Feeding in Infants with Prolonged Ventilation after Congenital Heart Surgery Golisano Children’s Hospital, University of Rochester https://pc4-posters.s3.us-west-2.amazonaws.com/Hilt%2C+Suzanne+Poster.pdf
Megan Rodts Characterizing Acute Care Cardiology Central Venous Catheter Use and Complications Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center https://pc4-posters.s3.us-west-2.amazonaws.com/Megan+Rodts+Poster+1.pptx
Megan Rodts OpenNotes in Pediatric Acute Care Cardiology: Collective Experiences of Caregivers and Providers in a Single Center Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center https://pc4-posters.s3.us-west-2.amazonaws.com/Megan+Rodts+Poster+2.pptx
Wendy Torres and Jamie Penk Periods of Low Renal Perfusion Pressure are Associated with Acute Kidney Injury following Pediatric Cardiac Surgery Ann and Robert H. Lurie Children’s Hospital of Chicago https://pc4-posters.s3.us-west-2.amazonaws.com/PC4RPPPoster(1).pptx

Additional Images, Videos Available on Website or By Request


Website: pc4quality.org

Twitter: @pc4quality Facebook: facebook.com/pc4quality

Executive Director: Dr. Sarah Tabbutt


Project Manager: Kim Gonzalez


PR/Social Media: Dr. David Werho